Table 1 Field-grown versus observed controlled-environment grown dry cone yield of examined hop cultivars.

From: Disentangling photoperiod from hop vernalization and dormancy for global production and speed breeding

Cultivar Field yield kg ha−1 Observed yield kg ha−1 % difference of field
‘Cascade’ 2,210 2,805 ± 57 +23.7
‘Cashmere’ 1,703 3,633 ± 76 +72.3
‘Centennial’ 1,529 3,284 ± 75 +72.9
‘Chinook’ 2,102 3,024 ± 95 +35.9
‘Columbus’ 2,782 4,597 ± 72 +49.2
‘Galena’ 2,409 3,379 ± 63 +33.5
‘Willamette’ 1,511 2,468 ± 44 +48.1
  1. Field grown yield24, observed yield (this study), and percentage difference (%) of the highest field cone yield (Washington State, USA 2018)24 versus controlled-environment observed yield (this study). Controlled-environment observed yield occurred at a bine density of 0.93 m2 per ha−1. Field bine density typically ranges between 5.0–2.5 m2 per ha−1 (estimated at 2–4 bines per hill at 2,500 hills per ha−1). Cone yield and standard error terms among crop cycles were pooled per cultivar and standard errors reported as the difference of the means for cv. ‘Cascade’ (n = 35, experiment 1–5), ‘Cashmere’ (n = 7, experiment 6), ‘Centennial’ (n = 35, experiment 1–5), ‘Chinook’ (n = 35, experiment 1–5), ‘Columbus‘ (n = 21, experiment 1–3), ‘Galena’ (n = 14, experiment 4–5), and ‘Willamette’ (n = 14, experiment 4–5). Note, observed versus field-grown yield comparisons represent one crop cycle per annum.