The hop yield with controlled vernalization and dormancy versus without. Non-vernalized (N) and vernalized (V) tissue culture generated plantlet dry cone yield (kg plant−1). (a) cv. ‘Cascade’. (b) cv. ‘Centennial’. (c) cv. ‘Chinook’. (d) cv. ‘Galena’. (e) cv. ‘Willamette’. Vertical bars represent standard deviations of seven replicates (n = 7). Means are not statistically different from each other at P < 0.05 (one-tailed unequal variances t-test).