The hop yield with natural vernalization and dormancy versus without. Vernalized rootstock (V), non-vernalized rootstock (N), and non-vernalized softwood cutting (C) dry cone yield (kg plant−1). (a) cv. ‘Cascade’. (b) cv. ‘Centennial’. (c) cv. ‘Chinook’. (d) cv. ‘Columbus’. Vertical bars represent standard deviations of seven replicates (n = 7). Means are not statistically different from each other at P < 0.05 (one-way ANOVA).