Table 4 Formation energies Ef of the copper-related defect complexes and the calculated CLS for N1 s core electrons in monolayer and bilayer graphene.

From: Characterization of nitrogen doped graphene bilayers synthesized by fast, low temperature microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

DefectsEfLDA (eV)N ECLS1s (eV)
Mono.Bi.Mono.Bi.
Subst. Cu9.447.85
Subst. N + Cu adsorbed3.874.9229.628.2
Trim. pyri. + Cu into SV3.431.7327.725.6
Trim. pyri. + Cu above SV2.662.5727.525.9
  1. These CLS results were obtained considering the N1s core eigenvalues.