Table 2 Calculated CLS for 1 s core electrons of monolayer and bilayer graphene defects. For a single vacancy, a C1s is used, all other results are related to N1s core eigenvalues.

From: Characterization of nitrogen doped graphene bilayers synthesized by fast, low temperature microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

DefectECLS (eV)
MonolayerBilayer
Single Vacancy121.8126.7
Substitutional0.01.5
Monomerized pyridine3.04.6
Trimerized pyridine3.14.7
Trimerized pyrrole3.95.3
  1. Where more than one nitrogen atom is present we computed the average value. Bilayer results obtained with the combination of a defective and a pristine layer.