Enhancement of primed Arabidopsis plants’ effects on indicated sub-groups of groups of antagonists (ASA in Table 1). Negative mean values of Hedge’s g indicate that primed plants were less damaged (or hosted less fit antagonists) than unprimed controls. Results show: (a) differing effects of priming on pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria; (b) lack of significant differences in effects on fungal sub-groups (Penicillium, Trichoderma and “Other” (e.g. Phoma and Saccharomyces cerevisiae); (c) differing effects on aphid and caterpillar herbivores. Different letters along the right-hand axis indicate significant differences according to the Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxon rank sum test or Student’s t-test (α 0.05), followed by post-hoc Dunn’s test (α 0.05).