Toxoplasma gondii-induced influence on host cell proliferation, karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Sub-confluent primary endothelial cells were infected with T. gondii at MOI 5:1 and analyzed after 24 h p.i. (A) cell proliferation was estimated by analyzing cell numbers from T. gondii-infected BUVEC and non-infected controls (B–D). The proportion of binucleated cells in T. gondii-infected, BUVEC (B, asterisks indicate binucleated cells, the yellow arrow shows a cell in division process) and non-infected controls was estimated by microscopic analysis. (D) The number of binucleated cells after DAPI-staining was graphed as percentage of the total cells. (E). The proportion of mitotic cells undergoing proper cytokinesis was estimated by time-lapse-based monitoring T. gondii-infected and non-infected cells (n > 1000, each) on single cell level for 20 h of recording using phase contrast microscopy. (F) 3D -holotomographic illustration of binucleate T. gondii-infected BUVEC at 2 and 24 hours p. i. The nuclei were stained with vital staining probe DRAQ5 (red). Statistical analysis: (A and D) t-test or (E) Nonparametric one-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis post-test). *p ≤ 0.05, ***p ≤ 0.001, ****p < 0.0001.