TGF-β1 and TCM induce expression of myofibroblastic markers in MSC. Bone-marrow derived MSC were isolated from the iliac crest of individual patients and treated with TGF-β1 (TGF, 10 ng/ml) (a) or tumour cell conditioned medium (TCM) (c) for 24 h. Relative mRNA of calponin 1, α-SMA and COL1A1 was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and normalized to ALAS and GAPDH. Western blots of α-SMA and calponin 1 in MSC after 48 h of TGF-β1 (TGF) (b) or TCM (d) treatment. Relative protein amounts were normalized to the α-tubulin signal. All data were normalized to the value for the starved control (Ctrl.) which was set to 1. (e) Relative collagen deposition determined by Sirius Red staining normalized to cell accumulation following treatment with TGF-β1 for 96 h. Error bars correspond to SD (n = 3). Asterisks indicate significant differences *p ≤ 0.05 according to an unpaired Student’s t test.