Table 1 Characteristics and Clinical Parameters of the Lean Subjects and Obese Patients.

From: Characterization of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in patients with obesity and with different degrees of glucose impairment

  Patient Groups P value
lean
(n = 18)
ob N
(n = 62)
ob preDM
(n = 58)
ob T2DM
(n = 57)
lean
vs.
ob N
lean
vs.
ob preDM
lean
vs.
ob T2DM
ob N
vs.
ob preDM
ob N
vs.
ob T2DM
ob preDM
vs.
ob T2DM
Female sex-n°(%) 11(61.1) 50(80.6) 45(77.6) 32(56.1) 0.12 0.22 0.92 0.85 0.007 0.02
Age (y) 48 ± 12 41 ± 9 45 ± 10 52 ± 9 0.06 0.26 0.29 0.16 <0.001 0.001
Hypertension-n°(%) 2(11.1) 24(38.7) 31(53.4) 53(92.9) 0.06 0.004 <0.001 0.15 <0.001 <0.001
Dyslipidemia- n°(%) 1(5.5) 33(53.2) 32(55.2) 45(78.9) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.98 0.006 0.01
OSAS- n°(%) 0(0) 8(12.9) 16(27.6) 25(43.8) 0.19 0.009 0.002 0.07 <0.001 0.10
BMI (kg/m2) * 24 ± 2 46 ± 8 47 ± 7 48 ± 8 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.83 0.10 1.0
FPG (mmol/L) 5.1 ± 0.7 5.0 ± 0.3 5.9 ± 0.5 9.4 ± 4.0 1.0 0.006 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Insulin (mU/L) 16 ± 10 26 ± 20 33 ± 32 0.003 <0.001 0.43
HOMAIR 3.7 ± 2.4 6.9 ± 5.7 12.3 ± 12.5 <0.001 <0.001 0.03
Glucose-AUC (mmol/L) min ‡ 1165 ± 125 1490 ± 171 <0.001
Insulin-AUC (mU/L) min ‡ 13113 ± 6989 17858 ± 9843 0.007
Waist (cm) § 127 ± 14 132 ± 11 137 ± 16 0.04 <0.001 0.48
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) 188 ± 30 192 ± 37 185 ± 39 0.59 0.59 0.59
HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL) 48 ± 11 46 ± 13 43 ± 11 0.60 0.02 0.50
LDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL) 119 ± 25 120 ± 36 113 ± 35 0.55 0.55 0.55
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 110 ± 47 137 ± 79 163 ± 81 0.23 <0.001 0.06
hs-CRP (mg/L) 5.1 ± 3.3 6.9 ± 3.2 7.6 ± 3.4 0.02 0.001 1.0
TNF-α (ng/L) 7.6 ± 2.9 7.7 ± 2.9 9.1 ± 3.2 1.0 0.01 0.02
IL-6 (ng/L) 3.4 ± 2.5 3.2 ± 1.3 4.4 ± 2.4 0.81 0.003 0.08
Leptin (µg/L) 39 ± 15 39 ± 16 36 ± 15 0.47 0.47 0.47
  1. Clinical data of control subjects (lean), normoglycemic (ob N), prediabetic (ob preDM) and diabetic (ob T2DM) obese patients are presented as mean values ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis was based on the One Way ANOVA test (age, total cholesterol, leptin) or a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (BMI, FPG, waist, insulin, HOMAIR, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6) followed, when statistically significant by, respectively, the Holm-Sidak test or Dunn’s multiple comparison post-test. The Wilcoxon Mann Whitney test was used to compare glucose- and insulin-AUC values. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare dichotomous variables between groups.
  2. *BMI was calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters. HOMAIR was calculated according to the following formula: [fasting serum insulin (mU/L) x fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. AUC was calculated using the trapezoidal method. §Waist circumference was measured with a tailor-meter at the midpoint of the line connecting the inferior border of the lowest rib with the superior border of the iliac crest.