Table 1 Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of low–risk term cohort by mode of delivery.

From: The effect of labor and delivery mode on electrocortical and brainstem autonomic function during neonatal transition

Characteristic Median (IQR) or N (%) Overall (n =  118) VD (n =  62) L–CS (n =  22) E–CS (n =  34) p-value
Maternal age 32 (30–34) 31.5 (30–35) 30 (27–32) 33.5 (32–35) 0.0003
Maternal BMI 28.7 (31.3–26.5) 28.0 (26.0–30.5) 30.8 (26.6–33.9) 30.1 (28.1–31.3) 0.04
Race
American Indian/Alaskan Native 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 1 (5.3) 0 (0) 0.07
White 74 (70.5) 42 (73.7) 10 (52.6) 22 (75.9)
Asian 20 (19.1) 12 (21.1) 3 (15.8) 5 (17.2)
Black or African American 7 (6.7) 3 (5.3) 3 (15.8) 1 (3.5)
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Other (specify) 3 (2.9) 0 (0) 2 (10.5) 1 (3.5)
Ethnicity
  Hispanic or Latino 15 (12.7) 6 (9.7) 4 (18.2) 5 (14.7) 0.50
Para ≥1 (Y/N) 111 (94.9) 58 (93.6) 19 (90.5) 34 (100) 0.21
Birth GA (weeks) 39.3 (39–40) 39.5 (39.1–40.1) 39.9 (39.1–40.4) 39.1 (39.0–39.3) 0.0005
Birth weight (grams) 3345 (3120–3590) 3397.5 (3180–3650) 3360 (3110–3575) 3195 (3100–3590) 0.40
Birth HC 34.9 (33.7–35.6) 34.85 (33.7–35.6) 34.3 (33–35.6) 34.9 (34.3–35.6) 0.39
Birth length 52 (50.8–53.3) 52.05 (50.8–53.3) 52.04 (50.8–53.3) 51.4 (50.2–53.3) 0.56
Gender male 57 (48.3) 26 (41.9) 15 (68.2) 16 (47.1) 0.11
Apgar score 1  min 8 (8–9) 8 (8–8) 8 (8–9) 8 (8–9) 0.07
Apgar score 5  min 9 (9–9) 9 (9–9) 9 (9–9) 9 (9–9) 0.79
Age at recording (hours) 23.1 (17.5–28.9) 18.8 (16.5–24.7) 29.8 (13.7–43.8) 27.1 (22.7–30.2) 0.0001
Duration of recording (minutes) 48 (42–52) 47.5 (42–52) 50 (45–56) 48 (41–50) 0.28
Usable HRV data 95 (80.5) 51 (82.3) 16 (72.7) 28 (82.4) 0.59
Usable HD–EEG data 101 (85.6) 50 (80.7) 21 (95.5) 30 (88.2) 0.21
  1. Abbreviations: VD – vaginal delivery, L–CS– caesarean section in labor, E–CS– elective caesarean section, BMI – body mass index, GA – gestational age, HC – head circumference, HRV – heart rate variability, HD–EEG– high–density electroencephalogram.