Figure 4 | Scientific Reports

Figure 4

From: Geometric morphometrics for the study of facial expressions in non-human animals, using the domestic cat as an exemplar

Figure 4

Mirror image of cat’s face, depicting placement of the 48 facial landmarks. Arrows have been added to indicate the direction and magnitude of landmark displacements associated with increased pain intensity, (as described in (i–vii) above). Landmarks appear contralateral to their origin, as they would when directly observing the cat’s face.

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