Table 3 Medications.

From: Apparent Effects of Opioid Use on Neural Responses to Reward in Chronic Pain

  Controls FMN FMO
Opioids 0 0 17
   Tramadol    5
   Hydrocodone/acetominophen (Norco)    9
   Morphine ER (MS-Contin)    1
   Oxycodone/acetominophen (Percocet)    2
   Codeine    1
NSAID 0* 7 12
Acetaminophen 0 0 12
Topical Lidocaine Patch 0 1 0
SNRI (e.g., duloxetine) 0 4 7
SSRI (e.g., fluoxetine) 0* 2 4
Tricyclic Antidepressant (e.g., amitryptyline) 0 3 1
Other Anxiolytic (e.g., buspirone) 0 2 2
Antiepileptic (e.g., topiramate) 0 2 5
Triptans (e.g., sumatriptan) 0 0 6
Benzodiazepine 0 0 3
Benzodiazepine-like (e.g., eszopiclone) 0 0 2
Muscle Relaxant (e.g., cyclobenzaprine) 0 2 6
GABA Analogue (e.g., gabapentin) 0* 6 7
Low Dose Naltrexone 0 2 0
Medical Cannabis 0 1 0
SARI (e.g., trazodone) 0 0 4
NDRI (e.g., methylphenidate, buproprion) 0 0 3
Ondansetron 0 0 1
Taking No Medications 13 4 0
  1. The number of individuals in each group taking the class of medications is shown for the control group, non-opioid taking fibromyalgia group (FMN) and opioid taking fibromyalgia group (FMO). *One control participant with premenstrual symptoms (2 days per month) reported taking gabapentin (100 mg/day, 2 days per month) and fluoxetine (40 mg/day), and another control participant reported taking celecoxib (200 mg) 3 weeks prior to the study visit due to a sports-related ankle injury. A post-hoc analysis excluding the 2 patients taking low-dose naltrexone did not change the results, therefore data from these patients were included in the presented analysis. Abbreviations: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID; serotonin and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, SNRI; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, SSRI; gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA; serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor, SARI; norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, NDRI.