Table 2 Clinical, Behavioral, and Psychological Measures.

From: Apparent Effects of Opioid Use on Neural Responses to Reward in Chronic Pain

  Controls Non-opioid FM Opioid FM ANOVA FM t-test
N Mean ± sd N Mean ± sd N Mean ± sd P-Value P-Value
Age 15 48.1 ± 10.2 17 48.1 ± 9.6 17 52.8 ± 6.9 0.237 0.295
Positive Affect (PANAS) 15 36.4 ± 5.4 17 26.4 ± 8.5 17 24.2 ± 7.2 p < 0.001 0.655
Negative Affect (PANAS) 15 13.1 ± 4.1 17 21.2 ± 8.0 17 21.6 ± 7.1 0.001 0.982
Behavioral Reward (BAS) 14 20.4 ± 2.9 16 20.4 ± 2.6 17 16.4 ± 8.1 0.412 0.453
Behavioral Drive (BAS) 14 13.7 ± 3.9 16 13.8 ± 3.6 17 9.3 ± 5.0 0.064 0.088
Behavioral Fun (BAS) 14 14.6 ± 2.3 16 13.3 ± 2.8 17 9.5 ± 5.0 0.034 0.147
Behavioral Inhibition (BIS) 14 21.1 ± 6.0 16 28.2 ± 3.5 17 23.1 ± 11.6 0.125 0.515
Mood Disturbance (POMS) 15 −4.5 ± 8.6 17 21.6 ± 15.8 17 24.2 ± 17.2 p < 0.001 0.862
Fatigue (PROMIS) 15 48 ± 6.5 17 65.5 ± 8.0 16 70.7 ± 5.0 p < 0.001 0.075
Trait Anxiety (STAI) 15 34.9 ± 8.3 17 49.7 ± 8.5 17 51.9 ± 12.4 p < 0.001 0.793
State Anxiety (STAI) 15 27.1 ± 7.5 17 41.4 ± 7.0 17 41.9 ± 12.8 p < 0.001 0.989
Depression (BDI) 15 2.3 ± 3.1 17 15.8 ± 8.9 17 15.2 ± 9.3 p < 0.001 0.973
Number of Pain Areas (FAF) 15 1.5 ± 2.0 17 13.9 ± 3.9 17 12.6 ± 3.7 p < 0.001 0.508
Pain Severity (BPI) 15 0.4 ± 1.0 17 5.7 ± 2.1 17 6.0 ± 1.5 p < 0.001 0.848
Pain Interference (BPI) 15 3.5 ± 6.4 17 36.9 ± 19.5 17 42.8 ± 17 p < 0.001 0.515
  1. Participant counts for each measure differ from the total number of participants (controls N = 15, non-opioid fibromyalgia (FM) N = 17, opioid FM N = 17) because some participants did not complete all questionnaires. Abbreviations: PANAS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; BIS/BAS, Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System; PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; FAF, Fibromyalgia Assessment Form; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; POMS, Profile of Mood States; BPI, Brief Pain Inventory; sd, standard deviation. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) across the 3 groups (group effect) P-values are reported. Tukey post-hoc t-test values are reported for comparison between the two patient groups. Data are presented for descriptive purposes only, therefore significance values (P-Value) shown are not corrected for multiple comparisons.