Table 1 Participant Demographics.

From: Apparent Effects of Opioid Use on Neural Responses to Reward in Chronic Pain

  Controls Non-Opioid Opioid
Total Participants (all female) 15 17 17
Righthanded 14 16 17
Self-Identified Race
Asian 6 2 0
African American 0 0 1
Caucasian 8 13 14
Other 1 2 2
Hispanic or Latina Ethnicity 1 3 2
Employment Status
Part-time employed 2 3 2
Full-time employed 10 6 2
Unemployed 3 8 13
Income Level
$0-$29,999 0 5 7
$30,000-$59,999 2 3 5
$60,000 or more 11 8 4
Education Level
High School 0 3 0
College/University 7 11 11
Advanced Degree 8 3 6
  1. “Non-opioid” and “Opioid” refer to the non-opioid fibromyalgia group and opioid fibromyalgia group respectively. One control participant did not indicate handedness, one non-opioid fibromyalgia subject was left handed. No participants were of race categories for Pacific Islander or Alaskan, or Native American (i.e., “other” refers to race other than all of these categories). High school refers to “up to or through high school”, college/university refers to “up to or through college/university”, and advanced degrees refer to “any amount of education post college/university”.