Figure 3 | Scientific Reports

Figure 3

From: Apparent Effects of Opioid Use on Neural Responses to Reward in Chronic Pain

Figure 3

Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activation during Gain Anticipation and No-loss Outcome. (a) Bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) region of interest (ROI) is shown in red (mirrored across cerebral hemispheres; but only one cerebral hemisphere is shown in this sagittal image). (b) Extracted fMRI beta values from the MPFC ROI (“MPFC activity”) during gain anticipation (gain versus no-gain anticipation, GVNant contrast) were significantly different among the groups, with post-hoc testing indicating this was driven by the difference between healthy control and non-opioid fibromyalgia (FM) groups. (c) Raw time courses of MPFC activity [percent fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal change] for potential “no-gain” trials with $0 cues (left panel) and potential “gain” trials with +$5 cues (right panel). Gray shading indicates periods included (from which beta values were extracted for each condition) in each contrast. The anticipation fMRI BOLD response was estimated to correspond to 4–8 seconds [cue and fixation during TR 1 and TR 2 (0–4 seconds) plus a 4 second delay accounting for hemodynamic response function (HRF)]. (d) Extracted fMRI beta values from the MPFC ROI (“MPFC activity”) during no-loss outcome (no-loss versus loss outcome, NVLout contrast) was significantly different among the three groups. (e) Raw time courses of MPFC activity [percent fMRI BOLD signal change] for “no-loss” [trials with −$5 cues and “hit” outcomes (i.e., net loss outcome equal to −$0; left panel)] and “loss” [trials with −$5 cues and “miss” outcomes (i.e., net loss outcome equal to −$5; right panel)]. Gray shading indicates periods included (from which beta values were extracted for each condition) in each contrast (“hit” minus “miss”). Outcome fMRI BOLD response was estimated to correspond to 10–14 seconds [cue and fixation during TR 4 and TR 5 (6–10 seconds) plus a 4 second delay accounting for HRF]. (f) Correlation between MPFC no-loss outcome fMRI beta values (NVLout contrast) and behavioral drive (BAS subscale) (r = 0.507, p = 0.004, N = 30). Four participants were missing BAS questionnaire data. Behavioral Activation Systems, BAS; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05.

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