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Figure 2

From: Apparent Effects of Opioid Use on Neural Responses to Reward in Chronic Pain

Figure 2

Nucleus Accumbens Activation during Gain Anticipation and No-loss Outcome. (a) Bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAcc) region of interest (ROI) is shown in red. (b) Extracted fMRI beta values from the NAcc ROI (“NAcc activity”) during gain anticipation (gain versus no-gain anticipation, GVNant contrast) were not significantly different among the three groups. (c) Raw time courses of NAcc activity [percent fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal change] for potential “no-gain” trials with $0 cues (left panel) and potential “gain” trials with +$5 cues (right panel). Gray shading indicates periods included (from which beta values were extracted for each condition) in each contrast. The anticipation fMRI BOLD response was estimated to correspond to 4–8 seconds [cue and fixation during TR 1 and TR 2 (0–4 seconds) plus a 4 second delay accounting for hemodynamic response function (HRF)]. (d) Extracted fMRI beta values from the NAcc ROI (“NAcc activity”) during no-loss outcome (no-loss versus loss outcome, NVLout contrast) were not significantly different among the three groups. (e) Raw time courses of NAcc activity [percent fMRI BOLD signal change] for “no-loss” [trials with −$5 cues and “hit” outcomes (i.e., net loss outcome equal to −$0; left panel)] and “loss” [trials with −$5 cues and “miss” outcomes (i.e., net loss outcome equal to −$5; right panel)]. Gray shading indicates periods included (from which beta values were extracted for each condition) in each contrast (“hit” minus “miss”). Outcome fMRI BOLD response was estimated to correspond to 10–14 seconds [cue and fixation during TR 4 and TR 5 (6–10 seconds) plus a 4 second delay accounting for HRF].

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