Table 4 Logistic regression analyses of hearing loss according to potassium intake levels.

From: Association between a High-Potassium Diet and Hearing Thresholds in the Korean Adult Population

  Univariate Multivariate*
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Potassium intake
    Middle tertile (vs high tertile) 1.472 (1.186–1.826) <0.001 1.469 (1.080–1.998) 0.014
    Low tertile (vs high tertile) 2.120 (1.727–2.601) <0.001 1.642 (1.152–2.340) 0.006
    Low tertile (vs middle tertile) 1.440 (1.195–1.735) <0.001 1.194 (0.894–1.593) 0.230
Age (increase 1-year-old) 1.124 (1.114–1.135) <0.001 1.093 (1.077–1.110) <0.001
Sex [reference: men (n = 2542)] 0.544 (0.463–0.639) <0.001 0.566 (0.391–0.821) 0.003
DM [reference: non-DM (n = 970)] 1.953 (1.618–2.356) <0.001 1.272 (0.980–1.651) 0.070
HTN [reference: non-DM (n = 2395)] 2.039 (1.735–2.397) <0.001 1.056 (0.847–1.317) 0.626
Household income (increase thousand won/month) 0.997 (0.997–0.998) <0.001 1.000 (0.999–1.000) 0.169
Smoking [reference: non-smoker (n = 3598)]
    Ex-smoker (n = 1300) 2.162 (1.802–2.593) <0.001 1.093 (0.766–1.559) 0.624
    Current smoker (n = 1027) 1.311 (1.050–1.637) 0.017 1.047 (0.716–1.531) 0.812
Alcohol [reference: abstinence (n = 1969)]
    Moderate alcohol consumption (n = 3722) 0.566 (0.476–0.668) <0.001 1.033 (0.813–1.314) 0.789
    Heavy alcohol consumption (n = 234) 1.087 (0.752–1.572) 0.657 1.901 (1.106–3.266) 0.020
Education [reference: less than high school (n = 2853)]
    High school (n = 1848) 0.315 (0.255–0.387) <0.001 0.730 (0.546–0.975) 0.033
    College or more (n = 1224) 0.157 (0.113–0.217) <0.001 0.519 (0.836–1.286) 0.003
    Physical activity [ref: non-physical activity (n = 2799)] 1.063 (0.906–1.248) 0.453 1.037 (0.836–1.286) 0.741
    eGFR (increase 1 ml/min/1.73 m2) 0.960 (0.955–0.964) <0.001 0.996 (0.988–1.005) 0.396
    Calorie intake (increase 1%) 0.996 (0.994–0.999) 0.004 0.997 (0.991–1.004) 0.428
    Protein intake (increase 1%) 0.994 (0.993–0.996) <0.001 1.003 (0.998–1.007) 0.236
    Fat intake (increase 1%) 0.929 (0.918–0.941) <0.001 0.991 (0.969–1.014) 0.443
    Carbohydrate intake (increase 1%) 1.032 (1.024–1.040) <0.001 1.011 (0.996–1.027) 0.142
    Sodium intake (increase 1 mg/1000 kcal) 1.000 (1.000–1.000) 0.515 1.000 (1.000–1.000) 0.305
    Occupational noise exposure [ref: non-exposure (n = 5015)] 1.500 (1.226–1.835) <0.001 1.519 (1.147–2.012) 0.004
    Explosive noise exposure [ref: non-exposure (n = 4343)] 1.563 (1.319–1.852) <0.001 0.933 (0.720–1.209) 0.602
    Vitamin A intake (increase 1 mg/day) 1.000 (0.999–1.000) <0.001 1.000 (1.000–1.001) 0.200
    Carotene intake (increase 1 mg/day) 1.000 (1.000–1.000) <0.001 1.000 (1.000–1.000) 0.273
    Retinol intake (increase 1 mg/day) 0.996 (0.994–0.997) <0.001 0.999 (0.998–1.000) 0.121
    Thiamine intake (increase 1 mg/day) 0.714 (0.644–0.792) <0.001 0.993 (0.826–1.194) 0.944
    Riboflavin intake (increase 1 mg/day) 0.484 (0.416–0.562) <0.001 1.086 (0.777–1.519) 0.629
    Niacin intake (increase 1 mg/day) 0.951 (0.940–0.963) <0.001 0.988 (0.960–1.017) 0.420
    Vitamin C intake (increase 1 mg/day) 0.996 (0.995–0.997) <0.001 0.999 (0.997–1.001) 0.212
    Serum vitamin D levels (increase 1 ng/mL) 1.025 (1.011–1.038) <0.001 1.002 (0.987–1.016) 0.816
  1. *Multivariate analysis for hearing loss was performed using potassium intake tertiles, age, sex, DM, HTN, household income, smoking habits, alcohol intake, education level, physical activity, eGFR, calorie intake, protein intake, fat intake, carbohydrate intake, sodium intake, occupational noise, explosive noise exposure, vitamin A intake, carotene intake, retinol intake, thiamine intake, riboflavin intake, niacin intake, vitamin C intake, and serum vitamin D levels.
  2. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; DM, diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.