Table 2 Clinical characteristics of participants according to the potassium intake tertile’.

From: Association between a High-Potassium Diet and Hearing Thresholds in the Korean Adult Population

  Low tertile Middle tertile High tertile P-value
Age (years) 58.8 ± 11.9 56.8 ± 11.1* 57.1 ± 10.3* <0.001
Sex (men) 964 (48.8%) 877 (44.4%) 701 (35.5%) <0.001
Diabetes mellitus 360 (18.2%) 289 (14.6%) 321 (16.3%) 0.009
Hypertension 890 (45.1%) 754 (38.2%) 751 (38.0%) <0.001
Household income (thousand won/month) 3290 ± 6400 3710 ± 6360 4130 ± 7660* 0.001
Smoking     <0.001
    Non-smoker 1074 (54.4%) 1178 (59.6%) 1346 (68.2%)  
    Ex-smoker 456 (23.1%) 456 (23.1%) 388 (19.6%)  
    Current smoker 445 (22.5%) 341 (17.3%) 241 (12.2%)  
Alcohol intake     <0.001
    Abstinence 625 (31.6%) 630 (31.9%) 714 (36.2%)  
    Moderate drinking 1207 (61.1%) 1287 (65.2%) 1228 (62.2%)  
    Heavy drinking 143 (7.2%) 58 (2.9%) 33 (1.7%)  
Education level     <0.001
    Less than high school 1079 (54.6%) 910 (46.1%) 864 (43.7%)  
    High school 555 (28.1%) 617 (31.2%) 676 (34.2%)  
    College or more 341 (17.3%) 448 (22.7%) 435 (22.0%)  
Physical activity 871 (44.1%) 923 (46.7%) 1005 (50.9%) <0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 88.0 ± 15.9 89.6 ± 14.8* 90.0 ± 14.0* <0.001
Calorie intake (%) 101.2 ± 35.9 99.4 ± 32.6 96.8 ± 32.8*# <0.001
Protein intake (%) 116.8 ± 60.8 130.3 ± 61.0* 133.6 ± 71.3* <0.001
Fat intake (%) 14.7 ± 8.5 16.1 ± 7.8* 15.1 ± 7.4* <0.001
Carbohydrate intake (%) 66.9 ± 14.8 68.0 ± 11.6* 70.9 ± 11.0*# <0.001
Sodium intake (mg/1000 kcal) 1895 ± 948 2357 ± 1123* 2667 ± 1587*# <0.001
Occupational noise exposure (%) 387 (19.6%) 281 (14.2%) 242 (12.3%) <0.001
Explosive noise exposure (%) 621 (31.4%) 514 (26.0%) 447 (22.6%) <0.001
Vitamin A intake (mg/day) 506 ± 531 758 ± 664* 1067 ± 1234*# <0.001
Carotene intake (mg/day) 2483 ± 2531 3890 ± 3507* 5754 ± 6852*# <0.001
Retinol intake (mg/day) 78 ± 195 95 ± 248 108 ± 580* 0.050
Thiamine intake (mg/day) 1.5 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.9* 1.8 ± 1.0*# <0.001
Riboflavin intake (mg/day) 1.0 0.6 1.2 ± 0.7* 1.4 ± 0.8*# <0.001
Niacin intake (mg/day) 14.0 ± 8.2 16.3 ± 8.1* 17.0 ± 8.3*# <0.001
Vitamin C intake (mg/day) 59 ± 56 107 ± 88* 165 ± 134*# <0.001
Serum vitamin D levels (ng/mL) 18.8 ± 7.2 18.7 ± 7.0 18.6 ± 6.7 0.846
  1. The data are expressed as numbers (percentages) for categorical variables and means ± standard deviations for continuous variables. The differences between the potassium intake tertiles were tested using one-way analysis of variance for continuous variables, followed by post hoc Tukey comparisons, and Pearson’s χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. *P < 0.05 versus the low tertile group. #P < 0.05 versus the middle tertile group.
  2. Abbreviations: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.