Table 1 Clinical characteristics of participants according to sex.

From: Association between a High-Potassium Diet and Hearing Thresholds in the Korean Adult Population

  Total cohort Men (n = 2542) Women (n = 3383) P-value
Age (years) 57.6 ± 11.2 58.3 ± 11.4 57.0 ± 11.0 <0.001
Diabetes mellitus 970 (16.4%) 488 (19.2%) 482 (14.2%) <0.001
Hypertension 2395 (40.4%) 1112 (43.7%) 1283 (37.9%) <0.001
Household income (thousand won/month) 371 ± 684 377 ± 711 366 ± 664 0.530
Smoking     <0.001
    Non-smoker 3598 (60.7%) 439 (17.3%) 3159 (93.4%)  
    Ex-smoker 1300 (21.9%) 1200 (47.2%) 100 (3.0%)  
    Current smoker 1027 (17.3%) 903 (35.5%) 124 (3.7%)  
Alcohol intake     <0.001
    Abstinence 1969 (33.2%) 509 (20.0%) 1460 (43.2%)  
    Moderate drinking 3722 (62.8%) 1846 (72.6%) 1876 (55.5%)  
    Heavy drinking 234 (3.9%) 187 (7.4%) 47 (1.4%)  
Education level     <0.001
Less than high school 2853 (48.2%) 1002 (39.4%) 1851 (54.7%)  
    High school 1848 (31.2%) 830 (32.7%) 1018 (30.1%)  
    College or more 1224 (20.7%) 710 (27.9%) 514 (15.2%)  
Physical activity 2799 (47.2%) 1291 (50.8%) 1508 (44.6%) <0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 89.2 ± 15.0 86.0 ± 15.1 91.6 ± 14.4 <0.001
Calorie intake (%) 99.1 ± 33.8 103.6 ± 34.1 95.7 ± 33.2 <0.001
Protein intake (%) 126.9 ± 64.9 136.4 ± 71.3 119.7 ± 58.7 <0.001
Fat intake (%) 15.3 ± 7.9 15.4 ± 7.7 15.2 ± 8.1 0.231
Carbohydrate intake (%) 68.6 ± 12.7 65.4 ± 13.5 71.0 ± 11.5 <0.001
Sodium intake (mg/1000 kcal) 2306 ± 1288 2360 ± 1294 2266 ± 1283 0.006
Potassium intake (mg/1000 kcal) 1629 ± 611.5 1544 ± 547 1692 ± 648 <0.001
Occupational noise exposure (%) 910 (15.4%) 554 (21.8%) 356 (10.5%) <0.001
Explosive noise exposure (%) 1582 (26.7%) 1373 (54.0%) 209 (6.2%) <0.001
  1. The data are expressed as numbers (percentages) for categorical variables and means ± standard deviations for continuous variables. The differences between men and women were tested using t-tests for continuous variables and Pearson’s χ2 test or the Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.
  2. Abbreviation: eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.