During the observational acquisition, participants observed a video in which a learning model watched a screen were the CS+ and CS− were presented with inter-trial-intervals (ITIs) in between. The anxious model reacted with anticipatory aversion to both the CS+ and the CS−, while the non-anxious model reacted with anticipatory aversion to the CS+ only. Both models reacted aversively when they were presented with the US in the form of an aversive sound in their headphones. During the direct test, participants observed the CS+ and CS−, as well as a novel CS, CSn, directly on the screen. The CSn was included to investigate generalization effects. The observational acquisition was preceded by a pre-acquisition phase where the CS+ and CS− were presented directly on the screen as in the direct test phase.