Table 1 Classical music pieces used as stimuli in our experiment.

From: Electroencephalography reflects the activity of sub-cortical brain regions during approach-withdrawal behaviour while listening to music

Piece Composer Performer Targeted affective state Duration (s)
Prelude Opus 32, Number 5 Sergei Rachmaninoff Sergei Rachmaninoff High valence, low arousal changing to high arousal 127
Étude Opus 10, Number 3 in E major Frédéric Chopin Murray Perahia Low valence, Low arousal changing to high arousal 150
Variations sérieuses Opus 54 (on a theme in D minor) Felix Mendelssohn Benjamin Frith Neutral valence, Changing arousal from low to high and back to low 170
Piano Sonata number 4, Opus 7, in E-flat major (the Grand Sonata) Ludwig van Beethoven Dieter Zechlin Low valence changing to high valence, neutral arousal 158