Table 3 Summary of findings of discontinuing breastfeeding at 6 months.

From: Secondhand Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy and Mothers’ Subsequent Breastfeeding Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Summary of findings:
Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Breastfeeding in Nonsmoking Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Patient or population: Nonsmoking Pregnant Women
Setting: Poland, United States, Brazil, Iran, Egypt, Taiwan, and Hong Kong
Intervention: SHS exposure
Comparison: Non-SHS exposure
Outcomes Anticipated absolute effects* (95% CI) Relative effect (95% CI) № of participants (studies) Certainty of the evidence (GRADE)
Risk with Non-SHS exposure Risk with SHS exposure
Discontinuing Breastfeeding at 6 months 0 per 1,000 0 per 1,000 (0 to 0) 1.07 (1.01 to 1.14) (2 observational studies) LOW
  1. *The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).
  2. CI: Confidence interval; MD: Mean difference; OR: Odds ratio; HR: Hazard Ratio.
  3. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence.
  4. High certainty: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect.
  5. Moderate certainty: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different.
  6. Low certainty: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.
  7. Very low certainty: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect.