Table 1 Implicit preferences for non-disfigured vs. disfigured faces for all participants by gender.

From: Behavioural and Neural Responses to Facial Disfigurement

  N (%) Mean Implicit Preference (a) SD t p Min Max Cohen’s d (b)
All Participants 79 0.90 0.58 13.80 <0.001 −0.26 2.00 1.55
By Gender
Male 24 (30.4) 1.18 0.52 11.25 <0.001 0.07 2.00 2.30
Female 55 (69.6) 0.77 0.56 10.18 <0.001 −0.26 2.00 1.37
Paired samples t -test   Mean difference   t p    Cohen’s d
   0.55   3.47 0.002    0.71
  1. aIAT D scores range from −2 to +2, with zero indicating no relative preference for non-disfigured vs. disfigured faces. Positive scores indicate an implicit preference for non-disfigured faces while negative scores indicate an implicit preference for disfigured faces. D scores were interpreted according to specific, conservative break points based on Cohen’s d: ±0.15 (‘slight’ bias), 0.35 (‘moderate’ bias), 0.65 (‘strong’ bias).
  2. bCohen’s d is a standardized effect size, interpreted as d of 0.2 = small effect, d of 0.5 = medium effect, and d ≥ 0.8 = large effect.