Analysis of the MΦ morphology on the modified surfaces. (a) Compiled images including the fluorescence micrographs of the stained cytoskeleton (F-actin, red channel) and nuclei (DAPI, blue channel), and the overlaid images of both red and blue channels. Phase-contrast micrographs were also shown for the comparison. The statistical results of (b) cell length and (c) nuclei diameter of the cultured MΦs on the studied surfaces. Data analysis was performed after 24 hours of cell culture (***P < 0.001).