Table 7 Effect of Iranian propolis on Uric acid, renal and liver function tests in T2DM patients after 90 days.

From: The Effect of Iranian Propolis on Glucose Metabolism, Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, Renal Function and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Variables Propolis(n = 50) Placebo(n = 44) P-Valuea
Before After Before After
BUN 12.57 ± 3.07 11.62 ± 2.64b 12.84 ± 3.59 12.3 ± 4.45 0.397
Cr 0.81 ± 0.2 0.85 ± 0.22 0.84 ± 0.3 0.96 ± 0.25 0.086
eGFR 110.91 ± 43.78 112.81 ± 99.95 114.31 ± 74.82 90.65 ± 25.87b 0.13
Uric acid 3.82 ± 1.19 3.63 ± 0.99 3.72 ± 1.54 3.8 ± 1.33 0.48
AST 27.42 ± 11.56 22.84 ± 6.18b 25.67 ± 9.98 24.92 ± 8.59 0.205
ALT 29.2 ± 26.26 22.45 ± 8.81b 26.91 ± 19.23 25.62 ± 12.97 0.193
ALP 240.68 ± 119.75 210.59 ± 61.01 280.55 ± 255.11 283.21 ± 226.18 0.044
  1. aComparison of change between placebo and Iranian propolis values after 90 days. bP < 0.05 for baseline versus after 90 days within the group. Data are mean ± standard deviation. BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ALP, alkalin phosphatase.