Table 5 Effect of Iranian propolis on glucose metabolism in T2DM patients after 90 days.

From: The Effect of Iranian Propolis on Glucose Metabolism, Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, Renal Function and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Variables Propolis(n = 50) Placebo(n = 44) P-Valuea
Before After Before After
Hemoglobin A1C, % 8.65 ± 1.24 7.67 ± 1.27b 8.78 ± 1.09 8.39 ± 1.15 0.006
2-hour postprandial, mg/dl 161.6 ± 50.38 159.54 ± 49.2 168.05 ± 52.61 223.39 ± 82.04b 0.000
Fasting blood glucose, mg/dl 176.6 ± 48.26 171.12 ± 52.86 169.68 ± 49.42 179.34 ± 53.47 0.456
Insulin, μIU/ml 14.03 ± 15.43 7.61 ± 6.69b 14.71 ± 12.77 15.46 ± 13.71 0.000
HOMA-IR 6.03 ± 6.55 3.69 ± 2.62b 6.05 ± 5.02 6.91 ± 6.7 0.000
HOMAβ 1.76 ± 1.2 1.02 ± 0.69b 1.91 ± 1.76 1.85 ± 1.56 0.000
  1. aComparison of change between placebo and Iranian propolis values after 90 days. bP < 0.05 for baseline versus after 90 days within the group. Data are mean ± standard deviation. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HOMAβ, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function.