Table 2 Laboratory Characteristic of Patients at baseline.

From: The Effect of Iranian Propolis on Glucose Metabolism, Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, Renal Function and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Variables Propolis(n = 50) Placebo(n = 44) P-Value
Hemoglobin A1C, % 8.65 ± 1.24 8.78 ± 1.09 0.86
2-hour postprandial, mg/dl 161.6 ± 50.38 168.05 ± 52.61 0.546
Fasting blood glucose, mg/dl 176.6 ± 48.26 169.68 ± 49.42 0.559
Insulin, μIU/ml 14.03 ± 15.43 14.71 ± 12.77 0.82
HOMA-IR 6.03 ± 6.55 6.05 ± 5.02 0.986
HOMAβ 1.76 ± 2 1.91 ± 1.76 0.696
BUN, mg/dl 12.57 ± 3.07 12.84 ± 3.59 0.55
Serum Cr, mg/dl 0.81 ± 0.2 0.84 ± 0.3 0.555
eGFR, ml/min 110.91 ± 43.78 114.31 ± 74.83 0.37
Uric acid, mg/dl 3.82 ± 1.19 3.72 ± 1.54 0.736
Triglycerides, mg/dl 162.8 ± 73.16 164.52 ± 121.46 0.933
Total cholesterol, mg/dl 149 ± 39.62 153 ± 43.91 0.645
HDL-Cholesterol, mg/dl 44.66 ± 8.69 43.98 ± 10.21 0.727
LDL-Cholesterol, mg/dl 71.73 ± 29.48 75.84 ± 26.2 0.485
AST, IU/I 27.42 ± 11.56 25.67 ± 9.98 0.441
ALT, IU/I 29.2 ± 26.26 26.91 ± 19.23 0.635
ALP, IU/I 240.68 ± 119.75 280.55 ± 255.11 0.325
hs-CRP, ng/ml 3589.74 ± 25.20.96 3925.92 ± 2546.47 0.522
TNFα, pg/ml 122.98 ± 115.44 130.24 ± 11.99 0.765
IL-6, pg/ml 32.88 ± 44.61 23.05 ± 22.03 0.37
IL-1β, pg/ml 34.84 ± 32.74 23.72 ± 13.42 0.391
  1. Data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HOMAβ, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ALP, alkalin phosphatase; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; hs-CRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL-1β, interleukin-1β; IL-6, interleukin-6.