Linear trends in SSH during (a) 1993–2016 and (b) 1993–2011, and the trends in EKE during (c) 1993–2016 and (d) 1993–2011. Green curves in (a–d) denote the mean GS position. Low panels (e,f) demonstrate the SSH changes induced by meridional shifts in the GS position and changes in the GS strength. Black lines indicate the long-term mean, red lines denote the northward shift (e) or strengthening (f), and green lines correspond to a southward shift (e) or weakening (f). Units are cm/decade for SSH trend and cm2/s2/decade for EKE trend.