Overview of bacterial PAMP detection strategies. (a) Schematic representation of amphiphilic bacterial biomarkers in association with biochemically similar molecules either by forming micelles or interacting with host lipoprotein carriers. Black arrows indicate physiological associations, while orange arrows indicate experimental processes. In the absence of sequestration by a host lipoprotein carrier, bacterial PAMPs can be detected by (b) membrane insertion, which requires only one antibody. When associated with a host lipoprotein carrier, detection can be performed using (c) lipoprotein capture, which requires two antibodies, as well as prior knowledge of PAMP-lipoprotein carrier associations. Dimensions of the various layers are included in order to present the biophysical dimensions of assay performance within the evanescent field of the waveguide. Graphic representations are not drawn to scale.