Table 7 Meta-analysis subgroup results: Observational (climatological studies).

From: Meta-analysis of urbanization impact on rainfall modification

  Rainfall change percentage Rainfall change location (km)
Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies
Urban Center 19 [13, 25] 34 NA NA NA
Upwind 0 [−2, 2] 12 47 [37, 57] 4
Downwind 22 [18, 26] 40 50 [45, 55] 28
Left Side 11 [1, 21] 11 41 [34, 48] 6
Right Side 10 [2, 18] 10 31 [26, 36] 7