Table 6 Meta-analysis subgroup results: Modeling (climatological studies).

From: Meta-analysis of urbanization impact on rainfall modification

  Rainfall change percentage Rainfall change location (km)
Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies
Urban Center 20 [14, 26] 10 NA NA NA
Upwind 5 [3, 7] 7 28 [17, 39] 3
Downwind 0 [−7, 7] 8 25 [17, 33] 4
Left Side 1 [−2, 4] 7 15 [10, 20] 2
Right Side 7 [2, 12] 7 13 [8, 18] 4