Table 5 Meta-analysis subgroup results: Climatology studies.

From: Meta-analysis of urbanization impact on rainfall modification

  Rainfall change percentage Rainfall change location (km)
Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies
Urban Center 20 [15, 25] 44 NA NA NA
Upwind 2 [0, 4] 18 40 [32, 48] 7
Downwind 18 [14, 22] 48 47 [42, 52] 32
Left Side 7 [1, 13] 17 34 [27, 41] 8
Right Side 9 [4, 14] 16 24 [19, 29] 11