Table 4 Meta-analysis subgroup results: Case studies.

Rainfall change percentage Rainfall change location (km)
Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation $$({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})$$ Number of studies Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation $$({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})$$ Number of studies
Urban Center 3 [−9, 15] 10 NA NA NA
Upwind −7 [−13, −1] 9 30 [26, 34] 4
Downwind 19 [12, 26] 16 63 [50, 76] 15
Left Side 10 [2, 18] 9 20 [14, 26] 3
Right Side 2 [−4, 8] 8 35 [30, 40] 2