Table 3 Meta-analysis summary results.

From: Meta-analysis of urbanization impact on rainfall modification

  Rainfall change percentage Rainfall change location (km)
Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies Mean Effect Size (ESV) Mean Effect size ± Standard Deviation \(({\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}\pm {\boldsymbol{S}}{{\boldsymbol{E}}}_{{\boldsymbol{E}}{{\boldsymbol{S}}}_{{\boldsymbol{V}}}})\) Number of studies
Urban Center 16 [11, 21] 54 NA NA NA
Upwind 1 [−1, 3] 28 36 [31, 41] 11
Downwind 18 [14, 22] 64 52 [47, 57] 47
Left Side 2 [−3, 7] 24 30 [25, 35] 11
Right Side 4 [0, 8] 23 26 [22, 30] 13