TNFR2 and Orai signaling pathways enhance hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes after inflammatory stimulation with TNFα or Cmed from in vitro LPS-activated cardiac CD11b/c cells. (A) CD11b/c cells were isolated from normal hearts and further subjected to in vitro activation by LPS incubation following or not semapimod pretreatment. Conditioned media (recovered after 18 hrs in culture) or TNFα were applied on rat cardiomyocytes after 1.5 hours iso treatment and cell hypertrophy analyzed after 18 hours. (B) TNFα or Cmed in vitro enhance hypertrophy of iso-treated cardiomyocytes in a manner sensitive to semapimod, TNFR2-Ab or YM58483. Mean ± SEM of 3–4 experiments, cardiomyocytes from 2–4 rats, 2 Cmed. Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn’s post-hoc test vs. the Iso-treated control (white column), *p < 0.05.