Table 1 Mean and standard deviation (SD) of demographic and clinical variables across Wolfram and control groups at session 1.

From: Evidence for altered neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration in Wolfram syndrome using longitudinal morphometry

Variable   Wolfram
(n = 29)
Controls
(n = 52)
Control Subsets
Non-diabetic controls
(n = 28)
Diabetic controls
(n = 24)
Sex M/F 15/14 27/25 13/15 14/10
Age (years) Mean ± SD 13.8 ± 5.5 13.9 ± 5.0 14.1 ± 5.3 13.6 ± 4.7
Range 5.9–25.8 6.0–26.2 6.0–26.1 7.6–26.2
*Follow-up period (years) Mean ± SD 3.6 ± 1.7 2.0 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.2
Range 1.0–5.9 1.0–2.3 1.0–2.3 1.1–2.3
Diabetes duration (years) Mean ± SD 7.9 ± 5.2 7.8 ± 4.8
Range 0.4–16.6 0.1–16.7
Diabetes mellitus Prevalence 29/29
    Age at dx (years) Mean ± SD 5.9 ± 3.0
Range 2.7–13.9
Diabetes insipidus Prevalence 18/29
    Age at dx (years) Mean ± SD 11.0 ± 3.8
Range 5.5–17.0
Hearing loss Prevalence 20/29
    Age at dx (years) Mean ± SD 10.5 ± 4.7
Range 6.0–25.8
Optic nerve atrophy Prevalence 28/29
    Age at dx (years) Mean ± SD 10.1 ± 3.9
Range 3.8–18.0
  1. There were no differences between the Wolfram and control groups for age (p = 0.93) or sex (p = 0.99), and there were no differences between Wolfram and the diabetic control groups for duration of diabetes (p = 0.95) at session 1. *Excludes participants with a single time point (Wolfram, n = 4; Non-diabetic control = 6; diabetic control = 6). Abbreviations: M, male; F, female; dx, diagnosis.