Table 3 Surplus fertilizer N loss from stable and unstable low yield areas and its monetary value, embedded energy, and associated CO2-equivalent emissions.

From: Yield stability analysis reveals sources of large-scale nitrogen loss from the US Midwest

State Surplus N Loss (Gg y−1) Monetary Value (million USD y−1) Embedded Energy (106 GJ y−1) CO2eq Emissions (Mt y−1)
IL 192–380 80.6–159.5 13.4–26.6 1.2–2.3
IN 88–241 36.9–101.1 6.1–16.9 0.5–1.5
IA 87–304 36.6–127.6 6.1–21.3 0.5–1.8
MI 6–17 2.3–7.0 0.4–1.2 0.0–0.1
MN 57–204 23.9–85.8 4.0–14.3 0.3–1.2
MO 72–132 30.3–55.6 5.0–9.3 0.4–0.8
ND 35–85 14.7–35.7 2.6–5.9 0.2–0.5
OH 40–133 16.7–55.8 2.8–9.3 0.2–0.8
SD 51–134 21.3–56.1 3.5–9.3 0.3–0.8
WI 8–43 3.6–18.1 0.6–3.0 0.1–0.3
Total Average 1155 (636–1673) 485 (267–702) 78.8 (45–113) 6.8 (3.5–10.1)
  1. Embedded energy refers to the energy cost of producing surplus N. CO2-equivalents are greenhouse gas emissions during fertilizer manufacture plus nitrous oxide emissions from applied fertilizer. The N fertilizer price used in this study is the 2017 price of 210 USD/MT.