Table 4 Determinants of cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards model in study patients.

From: Increased Aortic Arch Calcification and Cardiomegaly is Associated with Rapid Renal Progression and Increased Cardiovascular Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease

Parameter Univariate Multivariate (model 1) Multivariate (model 2)
HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
Study group
  AoAC < 4 and CTR < 50% Reference   Reference  
  AoAC < 4 and CTR ≥ 50% 3.836(1.181–12.460) 0.025 3.242(0.991–10.609) 0.052
  AoAC ≥ 4 and CTR < 50% 1.606(0.453–5.691) 0.463 1.302(0.365–4.650) 0.685
  AoAC ≥ 4 and CTR ≥ 50% 6.624(2.253–19.474) 0.001 4.127(1.349–12.631) 0.013
AoAC (per 1 score) 1.502(0.959–2.353) 0.076 1.103(0.712–1.709) 0.661
CTR (per 1%) 1.113(1.057–1.173) <0.001 1.100(1.032–1.171) 0.003
Age (per 1 year) 1.080(1.043–1.119) <0.001 1.065(1.028–1.104) <0.001 1.064(1.026–1.103) 0.001
Gender (male v.s. female) 1.806(0.955–3.416) 0.069 1.229(0.608–2.485) 0.566 1.261(0.623–2.551) 0.519
Diabetes mellitus 1.634(0.824–3.239) 0.160
Hypertension 6.637(0.911–48.382) 0.062
Coronary artery disease 1.821(0.834–3.975) 0.133
Cerebrovascular disease 1.658(0.693–3.967) 0.256
ACEI and/or ARB use 0.819(0.581–1.155) 0.255
Systolic blood pressure (per 1 mmHg) 1.001(0.987–1.015) 0.925
Diastolic blood pressure (per 1 mmHg) 0.984(0.961–1.008) 0.185
Body mass index (per 1 kg/m2) 0.909(0.831–0.996) 0.040 0.920(0.832–1.017) 0.104 0.918(0.830–1.014) 0.092
Fasting glucose (per 1 mg/dL) 1.001(0.995–1.007) 0.723
Hemoglobin (per 1 g/dL) 0.858(0.741–0.993) 0.040 1.006(0.832–1.215) 0.954 0.985(0.816–1.188) 0.872
Baseline eGFR (per 1 mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.976(0.951–1.001) 0.056
Calcium-phosphorous product (per 1 mg2/dL2) 1.008(0.971–1.047) 0.660
Total cholesterol (per 1 mg/dL) 0.998(0.992–1.005) 0.600
Log-transformed triglyceride (log per 1 mg/dL) 0.936(0.232–3.785) 0.926
HDL-cholesterol (per 1 mg/dL) 0.991(0.965–1.018) 0.524
LDL-cholesterol (per 1 mg/dL) 0.997(0.989–1.006) 0.515
Albumin (per 1 g/dL) 0.523(0.275–0.996) 0.049 0.607(0.270–1.365) 0.227 0.607(0.267–1.380) 0.233
Upcr (log per 1 mg/g) 1.000(1.000–1.000) 0.406
  1. Values expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Abbreviations are the same as in Table 1.
  2. Multivariate model: adjust for age and sex plus variables of p-value < 0.05 in univariate analysis.