Table 3 Determinants of rapid renal progression (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) lope < −3 ml/min/1.73 m2/year) using logistic analysis in study patients.

From: Increased Aortic Arch Calcification and Cardiomegaly is Associated with Rapid Renal Progression and Increased Cardiovascular Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease

Parameter Univariate Multivariate (model 1) Multivariate (model 2)
OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Study group
  AoAC < 4 and CTR < 50% Reference   Reference  
  AoAC < 4 and CTR ≥ 50% 2.557(1.505–4.346) 0.001 2.333(1.225–4.440) 0.010
  AoAC ≥ 4 and CTR < 50% 2.371(1.451–3.874) 0.001 2.640(1.404–4.966) 0.003
  AoAC ≥ 4 and CTR ≥ 50% 5.597(3.381–9.265) <0.001 4.815(2.474–9.369) <0.001
AoAC (per 1 score) 2.098(1.657–2.658) <0.001 2.264(1.665–3.079) <0.001
CTR (per 1%) 1.090(1.056–1.125) <0.001 1.059(1.014–1.107) 0.010
Age (per 1 year) 0.991(0.978–1.005) 0.991 0.965(0.945–0.985) 0.001 0.972(0.952–0.991) 0.005
Gender (male v.s. female) 1.331(0.943–1.878) 0.103 0.815(0.495–1.341) 0.421 0.876(0.540–1.422) 0.592
Diabetes mellitus 2.112(1.482–3.010) <0.001 1.225(0.709–2.118) 0.467 1.190(0.696–2.035) 0.525
Hypertension 2.687(1.528–4.725) 0.001 1.789(0.828–3.863) 0.139 1.810(0.850–3.856) 0.124
Coronary artery disease 1.565(0.970–2.525) 0.066
Cerebrovascular disease 0.724(0.408–1.287) 0.724
ACEI and/or ARB use 0.819(0.581–1.155) 0.255 0.836(0.502–1.390) 0.489 0.813(0.493–1.340) 0.416
Systolic blood pressure (per 1 mmHg) 1.009(1.002–1.017) 0.015 0.996(0.986–1.006) 0.383 0.998(0.988–1.008) 0.738
Diastolic blood pressure (per 1 mmHg) 0.991(0.979–1.003) 0.155
Body mass index (per 1 kg/m2) 1.009(0.967–1.054) 0.669
Fasting glucose (per 1 mg/dL) 1.005(1.002–1.008) 0.003 1.003(0.999–1.008) 0.172 1.004(0.999–1.008) 0.090
Hemoglobin (per 1 g/dL) 0.806(0.743–0.876) <0.001 1.021(0.885–1.178) 0.779 1.039(0.902–1.197) 0.593
Baseline eGFR (per 1 mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.951(0.938–0.966) <0.001 0.974(0.950–0.999) 0.044 0.973(0.950–0.997) 0.031
Calcium-phosphorous product (per 1 mg2/dL2) 1.040(1.017–1.063) <0.001 0.990(0.960–1.021) 0.534 0.988(0.959–1.019) 0.454
Total cholesterol (per 1 mg/dL) 1.003(1.000–1.006) 0.078
Log-transformed triglyceride (log per 1 mg/dL) 1.584(0.770–3.258) 0.211
HDL-cholesterol (per 1 mg/dL) 1.009(0.996–1.023) 0.179
LDL-cholesterol (per 1 mg/dL) 1.001(0.997–1.006) 0.516
Albumin (per 1 g/dL) 0.184(0.112–0.305) <0.001 0.398(0.208–0.763) 0.006 0.421(0.222–0.799) 0.008
Upcr (log per 1 mg/g) 5.920(3.884–9.023) <0.001 2.849(1.618–5.018) <0.001 2.931(1.684–5.102) <0.001
  1. Values expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Abbreviations are the same as in Table 1.
  2. Multivariate model: adjust for age, sex and ACEI/ARB usage plus variables of p-value < 0.05 in univariate analysis.