Mosapride citrate-mediated anti-inflammatory action was induced by activation of 5-HT4R. Effects of 5-HT4R stimulation on leukocyte infiltration by intestinal manipulation (IM) in postoperative ileus model of S4R KO mice. (A) Immunohistochemical or histochemical staining of CD68-positive macrophages or MPO-stained neutrophils in S4R KO mice intestine. Representative pictures from 4 independent experiments are shown. Bar indicates 100 μm. Immunohistochemical conditions are the same for Fig. 1A. (B and C) Quantified results of infiltrated macrophage (B) and neutrophil (C) cell numbers from A, where *** indicates values significantly different from control at p < 0.001 (n = 4 each). Each column shows the mean ± SEM. D: Typical results of flow cytometry to detect CD11b+Gr-1− macrophage subsets (upper trace) or Gr-1+Ly6C+ neutrophil subsets in postoperative ileus models of S4R KO mice. Representative results of flow cytometry from 4 independent experiments are shown. (E and F) Quantified results of % of CD11b+Gr-1− macrophage subsets (E) and Gr-1+Ly6C+ neutrophil subsets (F) of total leukocytes, where ** or *** indicates values significantly different from control at p < 0.01 or 0.001, respectively. Each column shows the mean ± SEM.