Table 1 Cardiac structure and function by echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamics.

From: The Clock Mechanism Influences Neurobiology and Adaptations to Heart Failure in Clock∆19/∆19 Mice With Implications for Circadian Medicine

Echocardiography (n) ClockΔ19/Δ19 HF mice WT HF mice ClockΔ19/Δ19 Controls WT Controls
8 8 5 5
Baseline
LVIDd (mm) 3.95 ± 0.03 3.95 ± 0.02 3.97 ± 0.03 3.95 ± 0.02
LVIDs (mm) 2.32 ± 0.02 2.35 ± 0.02 2.38 ± 0.03 2.33 ± 0.01
EF (%) 78.39 ± 0.40 77.42 ± 0.48 76.98 ± 0.57 78.10 ± 0.37
FS (%) 41.28 ± 0.39 40.37 ± 0.43 40.02 ± 0.51 41.01 ± 0.34
1 week post-infarction
LVIDd (mm) 4.94 ± 0.08* 5.11 ± 0.16§ 4.03 ± 0.02 3.98 ± 0.03
LVIDs (mm) 3.69 ± 0.09* 3.87 ± 0.15§ 2.43 ± 0.03 2.38 ± 0.05
EF (%) 56.55 ± 1.58* 54.76 ± 1.97§ 76.50 ± 0.51 77.26 ± 1.02
FS (%) 25.40 ± 0.94* 24.50 ± 1.15§ 39.61 ± 0.45 40.25 ± 0.90
8 week - HF
LVIDd (mm) 5.09 ± 0.08* 5.65 ± 0.11§ 4.05 ± 0.03 4.00 ± 0.03
LVIDs (mm) 3.81 ± 0.09* 4.45 ± 0.11§ 2.46 ± 0.03 2.39 ± 0.03
EF (%) 56.37 ± 1.17* 49.42 ± 1.08§ 76.08 ± 0.32 77.11 ± 0.48
FS (%) 25.38 ± 0.68* 21.52 ± 0.57§ 39.23 ± 0.24 40.11 ± 0.48
Hemodynamics (HF)
LVESP (mmHg) 88.2 ± 1.5* 87.0 ± 0.8§ 97.9 ± 1.4 98.4 ± 0.8
LVEDP (mmHg) 3.5 ± 1.5* 2.5 ± 1.1 −0.4 ± 0.4 0.4 ± 0.7
LVESV (μl) 23.5 ± 1.0* 36.4 ± 1.4§ 9.8 ± 0.9 10.6 ± 0.4
LVEDV (μl) 46.4 ± 0.6* 54.7 ± 1.3§ 34.7 ± 1.4 35.9 ± 1.1
SV (μl) 22.9 ± 0.6 18.3 ± 0.5§ 24.0 ± 0.6 24.1 ± 1.0
CO (mL/min) 11.5 ± 0.4 9.6 ± 0.5§ 12.7 ± 0.6 13.3 ± 0.8
dP/dtmax (mmHg/sec) 6939 ± 394* 5959 ± 258§ 10420 ± 674 9744 ± 864
dP/dtmin (mmHg/sec) 5905 ± 458* 5278 ± 258§ 9403 ± 1030 9830 ± 966
SBP (mmHg) 82.9 ± 1.0* 89.3 ± 0.9§ 97.8 ± 1.2 98.1 ± 1.0
DBP (mmHg) 58.7 ± 0.7* 60.6 ± 0.5 64.3 ± 1.4 63.6 ± 0.6
MAP (mmHg) 66.3 ± 0.7* 69.7 ± 0.3§ 74.7 ± 0.9 74.3 ± 0.3
Morphometry (HF)
HW (mg) 158 ± 2* 162 ± 6§ 140 ± 3 130 ± 3
HW:BW (mg/g) 5.03 ± 0.10* 5.86 ± 0.25§ 4.43 ± 0.15 4.14 ± 0.12
HW:TL (mg/mm) 7.79 ± 0.09* 8.10 ± 0.27§ 6.90 ± 0.15 6.46 ± 0.13
  1. LV, left ventricle; LVIDd/s, internal dimension diastole/systole, %EF, %ejection fraction; %FS, % fractional shortening; LVESP/DP, end systolic/diastolic pressure; LVESV/DV, end systolic/diastolic volume; SV, stroke volume; CO, cardiac output; dP/dtmax dP/dtmin, derivatives of LV pressure; SBP/DBP/MAP, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure; HW, heart weight; BW, body weight; TL, tibia length; *P < 0.05 ClockΔ19/Δ19-HF vs ClockΔ19/Δ19-control, §P < 0.05 WT-HF vs. WT-control, P < 0.05 ClockΔ19/Δ19-HF vs. WT-HF by two way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc. Values are mean±SEM.