Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Arctic warming interrupts the Transpolar Drift and affects long-range transport of sea ice and ice-rafted matter

Figure 1

(a) Photo of ice-rafted material (sediments) observed during a RV Polarstern cruise in the Transpolar Drift (PS87 at 86.68°N, 148.75°E in 2014). (b) Overview map of the Arctic Ocean. Orange zones along Arctic coastline indicate shallow water areas of less than 30 m water depth where entrainment of biogeochemical material takes place. Subsequently, ice-rafted material is transported by the two major drift regimes: The Beaufort Gyre, a clockwise circulation regime and the Transpolar Drift, transporting sea ice from the Siberian Shelf Seas towards Fram Strait. To determine drift patterns and source areas of sea ice that exits the Arctic between Greenland and Svalbard, backward trajectories were calculated starting from six positions located in northern Fram Strait (dark grey circles). In a second experiment, we investigated the survival rates of sea ice that was formed in the Siberian Shelf Seas by forward-tracking sea ice starting from the 32 purple circles located along the coast of Siberia. Purple circles mark shallow regions with water depths between 25–30 m. (c) Time series of winter (October–April) ice area flux across a zonal gate positioned along 82.5°N, 60°E–180°E (black line). (d) Time series of summer (September) sea ice area (source NSIDC), (e) time series of sea ice thickness North of Fram Strait from Electromagnetic (EM) sounding between 2001–2018 (source AWI IceBird program).