Table 3 Average imidacloprid levels in organs (ng of imidacloprid per gram of tissue) liver, brain, spleen, and genital in adult females (AF, n = 21), fawns (n = 65), female fawns (FF, n = 32), and male fawns (MF, n = 32) per treatment and control groups.

From: Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Physiology and Reproductive Characteristics of Captive Female and Fawn White-tailed Deer

Age/Sex Group Survived/died Liver (ng/g) (SEM) Brain (ng/g) (SEM) Spleen (ng/g) (SEM) Genital (ng/g) (SEM)
AF Control All 0.351 (0.09) 0.222 (0.22) 0.012 (0.01) 0.388 (0.12)
AF Low All 0.133 (0.04) 0 0.077 (0.05) 0.380 (0.11)
AF Moderate All 0.495 (0.18) 0.010 (0.01) 0.111 (0.11) 0.287 (0.08)
AF High All 0.590 (0.12) 0 0.188 (0.10) 0.210 (0.06)
AF All Died 0.153 (0.04) 0.277 (0.21) 0.030 (0.02) 0.191 (0.13)
AF All Survived 0.487 (0.08) 0.003 (0) 0.124 (0.05) 0.330 (0.04)
AF All All 0.423 (0.07) 0.055 (0.05) 0.106 (0.04) 0.694 (0.05)
FF Control All 0.416 (0.06) 0.058 (0.03) 0.156 (0.04) 0.273 (0.04)
FF Low All 0.430 (0.05) 0.053 (0.02) 0.114 (0.02) 0.402 (0.04)
FF Moderate All 0.357 (0.05) 0 0.126 (0.02) 0.174 (0.02)
FF High All 0.426 (0.12) 0.008 (0) 0.294 (0.13) 0.222 (0.04)
FF All Died 0.443 (0.09) 0 0.268 (0.06) 0.219 (0.03)
FF All Survived 0.401 (0.07) 0.044 (0.03) 0.177 (0.08) 0.290 (0.06)
FF All All 0.417 (0.06) 0.028 (0.02) 0.210 (0.05) 0.264 (0.04)
MF Control All 0.681 (0.10) 0.065 (0.02) 0.223 (0.03) 0.102 (0.03)
MF Low All 0.350 (0.04) 0 0.037 (0.01) 0.168 (0.05)
MF Moderate All 0.566 (0.08) 0.044 (0.02) 0.252 (0.07) 0.148 (0.04)
MF High All 0.532 (0.09) 0.057 (0.04) 0.176 (0.06) 0.157 (0.03)
MF All Died 0.654 (0.08) 0.006 (0) 0.489 (0.07) 0.259 (0.04)
MF All Survived 0.518 (0.08) 0.057 (0.03) 0.116 (0.03) 0.115 (0.03)
MF All All 0.553 (0.07) 0.046 (0.02) 0.193 (0.04) 0.146 (0.03)
Fawn All Died 0.528 (0.04) 0.002 (0) 0.342 (0.03) 0.232 (0.02)
Fawn All Survived 0.463 (0.05) 0.051 (0.02) 0.144 (0.04) 0.200 (0.03)
  1. AF, FF, and MF are also separated into averages for those that were dead, and alive at the end of the experiment, and the sum of all AF, FF, or MF in our study.