Table 1 Is Happiness Greater in More Scenic Locations? Estimated Model Parameters For Fixed Effects Model.

From: Happiness is Greater in More Scenic Locations

Environment Variables Model 1: scenicness only Model 2: scenicness and environmental variables
Coeff 95% C.I. Coeff 95% C.I.
Scenicness 3.527*** [2.551, 4.504] 2.770*** [1.757, 3.783]
Natural habitat   0.574*** [0.303, 0.844]
Percentage of green space   −0.451 [−0.999, 0.0979]
Log of area-level median household income   −0.255 [−0.654, 0.144]
Urban   −0.282 [−0.668, 0.103]
Rural   0.608*** [0.263, 0.954]
Suburban (base category)   
Participant is
Home 0.375 [−0.113, 0.862] 0.442 [−0.0452, 0.930]
Work −3.252*** [−3.764, −2.739] −3.217*** [−3.730, −2.705]
Elsewhere (base category)   
Companionship
Spouse, partner, girl/boyfriend 4.215*** [3.858, 4.572] 4.144*** [3.787,4.501]
Children 0.564* [0.0622, 1.066] 0.556* [0.0543,1.058]
Other family members 1.278*** [0.897, 1.659] 1.196*** [0.812,1.580]
Colleagues, classmates 0.0327 [−0.804, 0.869] 0.00123 [−0.833,0.835]
Clients, customers 2.593*** [1.311, 3.876] 2.566*** [1.280,3.853]
Friends 4.500*** [4.155, 4.846] 4.441*** [4.092,4.790]
Other people participant knows −1.486*** [−2.147, −0.826] −1.531*** [−2.192, −0.869]
Selected Activities
Travelling, commuting −2.216*** [−2.517, −1.914] −2.214*** [−2.517, −1.911]
Sleeping, resting, relaxing 1.204*** [0.563, 1.845] 1.133*** [0.494, 1.773]
Talking, chatting, socialising 4.202*** [3.853, 4.552] 4.193*** [3.844, 4.542]
Eating, snacking 1.413*** [1.009, 1.816] 1.426*** [1.022, 1.829]
Walking, hiking 3.918*** [3.513, 4.324] 3.857*** [3.453, 4.261]
Sports, running, exercise 7.221*** [6.530, 7.913] 7.186*** [6.495, 7.878]
Gardening, allotment 3.955*** [3.103, 4.807] 3.958*** [3.105, 4.811]
Birdwatching, nature watching 4.143*** [3.233, 5.053] 3.979*** [3.064, 4.893]
Hunting, fishing 4.994*** [2.275, 7.713] 4.755*** [2.051, 7.460]
+33 further activity dummies Yes   Yes  
Weather
Wind speed −1.337** [−2.260, −0.414] −1.362** [−2.285, −0.440]
Cloud cover −0.761*** [−1.164, −0.358] −0.791*** [−1.195, −0.388]
Visibility 0.223 [−0.419,0.865] 0.186 [−0.456,0.828]
Temperature 4.018*** [2.745,5.292] 4.067*** [2.792,5.343]
Sun 1.149*** [0.772,1.525] 1.124*** [0.748,1.501]
Rain −11.06*** [−16.69, −5.444] −11.07*** [−16.69, −5.447]
Hours of weekday/weekend and bank holiday dummies (3-hour blocks) Yes   Yes  
Mappiness usage dummies (participant’s response, 1, 2–11, 12–51) Yes   Yes  
Observations 138,407   138,407  
Groups (participants) 15,444   15,444  
Groups (LSOAs) 14,228   14,228  
R2 49.5%   49.5%  
Adjusted R2 43.1%   43.1%  
Within R2 11.6%   11.6%  
  1. *\(p < 0.05\), **\(p < 0.01\), ***\(p < 0.001\). The dependent variable is Happiness, scaled to 0–100. Note that while all the activities that people report on in the Mappiness app have been included in the model (Supplementary Table 2), we only report the activities that we expect to be common in scenic environments. We find that people are happier when in more scenic locations, even after accounting for environmental factors such as presence of green space, or whether the location is a built-up area or a natural habitat.