Proteomic analyses of mammoth tissues. (a) More than 40% of the proteins identified by searching against mammalian and mammoth protein databases belong to the order Proboscidea. (b) The Venn diagram represents the proteins identified in the bone marrow and the muscle tissues. (c) The list of the proteins identified by the search against the mammoth protein database. NPM (95%) means the number of peptides matched with confidence of more than 95%. (d) Comparison of the degree of glutamine deamidation in five collagen peptides between the bone marrow (BM) and muscle (M) samples using extracted ion chromatography. Blue and red lines correspond to normal and deamidated forms of the collagen peptides, respectively. Arrowheads indicate peaks of deamidated forms.