Validation of mammoth sample by whole-genome sequencing. (a) Photograph of the remains of a woolly mammoth, named Yuka. (b) The tree was inferred using the Maximum Likelihood method based on the Tamura-Nei model in MEGA6. The number at the nodes indicates the confidence level greater than 95% with 1,000 bootstrap replicates. The scale bar represents a distance of 0.02 substitution per site. (c) Venn diagrams showing comparison of sequence nucleotide variants (SNVs) between the Yuka mammoth and other elephantid specimens. SNVs identified in at least one of the five elephantid specimens (M4 and M25 woolly mammoths and three Asian elephants) are indicated as five elephantids. (d) Amino acid substitution in mammoth serum albumin and fibrinogen alpha chain are compatible with mammoth SNVs found in our genomic sequencing and previous reports6,15.