Reproductive organ defects in Gdnf wt/hyper mice. (A) Male wild type (WT) lower urinary tract and reproductive organs at P10. Black arrow denotes ureter (u) connection to bladder (bl). (B) Gdnf wt/hyper male in F2 generation exhibits split ureter with one (u, black arrow) connecting to bladder (bl) and the other, hydroureter (u) connecting to vas deferens (vd, red arrow). (C) Hematoxylin-eosin staining of P56 wild type seminal vesicle. Squared area is enlarged in C’. (D) Histology of P56 Gdnf wt/hyper seminal vesicle shows sperm inside the lumen and loss of typical lobular shape of seminal vesicles. Squared area is enlarged in D’. (E) Normal female mouse abdomen at P35. Yellow arrows point to uterus, white arrows indicate ureter. (F) Corresponding abdomen of Gdnf wt/hyper female shows hydrotic ureters and badly swollen uteri (yellow arrows). Hematoxylin-eosin staining of frontal sections of (G) WT and (H) Gdnf wt/hyper vagina at the surface level. Asterisk in H shows accumulation of keratinized mass inside the vagina, which is indicative of fluid blockage. Black arrows point to vaginal opening in wild type mice, and to the site where vaginal opening should be in Gdnf wt/hyper mice. All images are examples of F2 generation of backcrossing to isogenic C57BL/6NCrl background. Abbreviations: bl; bladder, sp; sperm, sv; seminal vesicle, t; testis, u; ureter, ut; uterus, vd; vas deferens. Scale bars: 1 mm and C’: 250 µm.