Kidney and lower urogenital tract defects in Gdnf hypermorphic mice. (A) Representative images of wild type (WT), (B) Gdnf wt/hyper and (C) Gdnf hyper/hyper urogenital system at E18.5 and (D–F) at P7, demonstrating renal hypoplasia, unilateral hydroureters (black & white asterisks) and severe renal hypodysplasia accompanied with short ureters. Red lines depict medial edge of ureter. Note hemorrhaging in testes. (G) Distribution of distinct ureter phenotype percentages in different genotypes at late embryonic and early postnatal stages (n = 38, 41, 32 for WT, Gdnf wt/hyper Gdnf hyper/hyper, respectively). In the table, one asterisk indicates short ureter while two is severely shorter. Abbreviations: a; adrenal gland, bl; bladder k; kidney, o; ovary, t; testis. Scale bar: 250 µm.