Table 1 Demographic characteristics of COPD patients and control subjects donating tissues for immunohistochemical analysis.

From: Hedgehog signaling in the airway epithelium of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Characteristic non-COPD GOLD STAGE 2 GOLD STAGE 3,4
Sex (M/F) 2/3 6/3 3/5
Smoking status (non/current/ex/NA) 5/0/0/0 0/4/3/2 0/1/7/0
Age (mean ± SD) 59.6 ± 19.8 63.7 ± 9.0 61.0 ± 6.1
%FEV1/FVC (mean ± SD) 83.0 ± 4.4 57.1 ± 5.6 33.4 ± 11.9