Table 1 Study participants: Schistosoma mansoni infection and Schistosoma-specific antibodies.

From: Microarray assessment of N-glycan-specific IgE and IgG profiles associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in rural and urban Uganda

Characteristic Rural (n = 209) Urban (n = 62) p value
Age in years, median (IQR) 22 (5, 37) 11 (5, 18) <0.001*
Male sex, n/N (%)§ 97/209 (44.3) 18/62 (29.0) 0.163
Helminth infections, n/N (%)§
S. mansoni (single KK) 54/197 (34.5) 4/48 (8.3) 0.002
S. mansoni intensity (KK)    0.002
   Uninfected (0 eggs/g) 143/197 (65.5) 44/48 (91.7)
   Light (0–99 eggs/g) 29/197 (17.2) 3/48 (6.3)
   Moderate (100–399 eggs/g) 14/197 (10.2) 1/48 (2.1)
   Heavy (≥400 egg/g) 11/197 (7.0) 0/48 (0.0)
S. mansoni (PCR) 77/196 (44.9) 6/48 (12.5) <0.001
S. mansoni (urine CCA) 118/199 (66.0) 21/58 (36.2) 0.015
Any nematode infection# 43/196 (18.7) 1/48 (2.1) 0.001
Total IgE (kU/L), median (IQR) 548.4 (404.4, 666.9) 103.3 (63.8, 146.5) <0.001*
Schistosoma egg and worm-specific antibody levels, (μg/ml), median (IQR)
SEA-specific IgE 4.2 (2.6, 6.6) 2.2 (1.4, 3.6) <0.001*
SWA-specific IgE 3.9 (2.4, 5.9) 2.1 (1.3, 3.1) <0.001*
SEA-specific IgG4 161.0 (45.9, 663.8) 8.8 (0.0, 48.4) 0.001*
SWA-specific IgG4 71.6 (39.5, 188.1) 32.1 (7.8, 57.9) 0.001*
SEA-specific IgG 1687.3 (848.1, 2727.7) 730.7 (527.4, 1413.4) 0.002*
SWA-specific IgG 1432.4 (845.8, 1941.6) 804.5 (572.7, 1311.3) <0.001*
  1. §Percentages adjusted for survey design.
  2. P values obtained from survey design-based logistic regression.
  3. *P values obtained from survey design-based linear regression.
  4. #Infection with any of Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus (assessed by PCR), Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides (assessed by KK) and Mansonella perstans (assessed by modified Knott’s method).
  5. Percentages/medians that are significantly higher in one setting compared to the other (p ≤ 0.05) are highlighted in bold.
  6. KK: Kato-Katz; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction; CCA: Circulating Cathodic Antigen; IQR: Interquartile range; SEA: Schistosoma egg antigen; SWA: Schistosoma adult worm antigen.